Quote 1: It means every time we make the same mistakes, the loss is greater

Quote 2: Learn from the mistakes of the past

Quote 3: A knowledge of the past will give you a greater understanding of the world around you, because it will give you some perspective.



Book 1:

1) Medieval Law and Punishment

2) Donna Trembinski

3) The book is about the systems of law and the severity of punishments that were administered in the middle ages. It talks about which social classes could challenge one another in court, and which crimes were considered most heinous. It then discusses which punishments would be deemed appropriate for which crimes, and how that punishment would be determined. Generally, the punishments were harsh enough to persuade the majority of people to live an honest life. These punishments included hanging, public beheading, and being dragged through the streets tied to two horses.

4) Theft was the most common crime of the middle ages, making up almost half of all the crimes carried out. Violent crimes were punished less harshly than theft, meriting only a fine or, occasionally, a beating.


Book 2:

1) Medieval Towns, Trade, and Travel

2) Lynne Elliot with

3) This book talks about the development of medieval towns,and what life was like in these towns. It also talks about the methods of travel that existed in that time, and the trading that went on. It discusses the different traditions and events that took place in these medieval towns, and shows how different their economic system was from our modern one.

4) Clothing and Spices were the most commonly traded items. Prominent towns had to set up sophisticated defense systems to prevent invasion from foreign barbarians. English merchants traded civilizations as far east as India.


Book 3:

1) The Life of a Knight

2) Kay Eastwood

3) It's about the role of knights in the middle ages, how a child developed into a knight, and the social status these knights held. It has information about the different weapons they carried, the armor they wore, and their code of living.

4) When knights weren't in battle, they collected taxes from the peasants who lived on their land, and competed in tournaments. Knights decorated their shields in order to identify themselves when they were in armor.



Book 4:

1) The World of Castles

2) Philip Steele

3) This book talks about the purpose of castles, how castles were built, and the reason that they were designed the way they were. For instance, towers had cerated tops to give archers protection while they fired on enemies. Castles were generally inhabited by nobility, or the extremely wealthy. These men almost invariably had armies under their control, and often had to employ these armies to defend their castle from attackers.

4) Castles were usually built on hills or cliffs to give the inhabitants a strategic advantage. The architecture of castles was developed over thousands of years and improved after many mistakes.





1) The cultural step backward from the remarkably intellectual and innovative Roman culture led us to refer to the period in history immediately following its downfall as "The Dark Ages". There was a noticeable decline in quality of living, as well as a widespread lack of education and technological advancements. Architecture, art, and culture in general had receded, giving way to the dominance of the church. This result of this theocratic society was a lack of scientific advancements.

2) The Middle Ages got its name by being a transitory period between two thriving cultures. It marks a period in human history between Ancient Rome and the modern world.

3) I think the art form that interests me most from the Middle Ages is probably tapestry weaving, just because it seems like it required so much skill and patience. It really impresses me that an artist could sew something that detailed.

4) I would expect it to be very religion-orientated, probably very angelic sounding, and due to the lack of innovation during this period, I would predict a mostly vocal musical scene. I would be surprised to hear many different instruments in the music of this time period.

5) Unstructured, stringed instrument plucking with no real time signature. Simple, repetitive arrangement.