70,000 B.C.---------------------------35,000 B.C.---------------------------15,000 B.C.-----------------------------------10,000 B.C.----------------------------------4,000 B.C.--------------------------------------3,760 B.C.---------------------------3,500 B.C.-----------------------------2,700 B.C.---------------------------------2,680 B.C.--
/ / / /
Neanderthal man uses Homo Sapien emerges Migration across Bering Development of Cities The wheel, pottery First year of First phonetic Pharaonic rule begins Great Pyramid
fire and advanced tools Straits into the Americas in Mesopotamia and agricultural advancements the Jewish calendar writing appears in Egypt with King Cheops at Giza is

-------2,540 B.C.----------------------2,000 B.C.----------------------------------1,800 B.C.---------------------------------------------1,500 B.C.--------------------------------------1,375------------------------------------------------------1,193 B.C.----------------------------------------900 B.C-------------------------------800 B.C.------------------
/ / /
Great Sphinx of Giza Earliest Egyptian Hammurabi's Code Stonehenge is constructed Monotheistic religion Greeks destroy Troy Hebrew elders begin Homer writes The Iliad
is completed mummies, use of papyrus begins to develop in Egypt writing the Old Testament and The Odyssey
Systematic astronomy emerges Solomon succeeds King
King Sargon builds Mesopotamian David, builds Jerusalem Temple
empire After Solomon's death, kingdom is divided into
Israel and Judah

----------776 B.C.--------------------------753 B.C.------------------------------700 B.C.------------------------------------------------------616 B.C.---------------------------------------------586 B.C.------------------------------------------------------------539 B.C.------------------------------------------------431 B.C.-----------------------430 B.C.-
/ / /
First recorded Olympic Rome founded by Assyrian King Sargon II Destruction of Nineveh Nebuchadnezzar builds empire, destroys Cyrus the Great of Persia Peloponnesian Wars Parthenon
Games Romulus and Remus conquers Hittites, Chaldeans, and Medes, end of Assyrian Jerusalem. Babylonian Captivity of Jews begins. conquers Babylon, frees Jews Constructed
Samaria (end of Kingdom of Israel) Empire Hanging gardens of Babylon are constructed Athenian Democracy develops
Earliest written music Buddhism founded

----330 B.C.--------------------------300 B.C-------------------------150 B.C.----------------------------------------------------------55 B.C.-------------------------------4 A.D.-----------------------30 A.D.--------------------------135 A.D.-------------------200 A.D.-------------------------313 A.D.--------------------------------395 A.D.-------
/ / / / /
Alexander the Great Golden age of Roman Armies conquer Caesar invades Britain Birth of Jesus Crucifixion of Jesus Diaspora Oldest Mayan temples Constantine issues Roman Empire
occupies Babylon philosophy in Greece Macedonia, Greece, Anatolia in Central America Edict of Milan; permanently divided Balearic Islands, and Southern France Christianity becomes mainstream

----400 A.D.
Rome's Western Empire
collapses under weak rulers

The factors that led to the fall of Rome were the internal discontent amongst the general population, which led to a disloyal and unpatriotic military. This weakened military could no longer defend Rome's overextended borders from barbarian invaders who used Rome's highly advanced system of roads against them by following these roads to the capital. Their leaders were unable to maintain control of such a vast empire, and were consequently extremely unpopular and lacked the respect of the great caesars of the glory years. All of these factors contributed to the eventual downfall of the greatest empire history has ever known.

Your Name
Music of Ancient Times: In the Spirit of Socrates__


From “Ancient Egyptian Design”
  1. Name some of the colors used by ancient Egyptian artists.
Green, Yellow, Red, Brown, Pink, Black
From “Music In Antiquity”
  1. What function(s)/purpose did music of Ancient Times serve?
Use in religious ceremonies, important events, celebrations, plays, and day to day life
  1. Why did pipers play during sacrifices?
In order to cover up any noises that the animal may have made
  1. Which instrument was used to signal retreat, attack and halt?
Tube signaled retreat, attack and halt
  1. Why were musicians left to play in camps after the army had departed?
To trick the enemy into thinking that the army was still there
  1. Whose teaching salary was the highest in the Asia Minor?
A music teacher’s salary was the highest
  1. What was a music teacher’s responsibility?
To teach theory and instruct students to play the kithara
  1. What’s up with Nero? He posed as a professional musician when really he was an amateur.
From “Outrageous Women of Ancient Times”
  1. When was Sappho active?
Around 600 B.C.
  1. What musical instrument/accessory did she invent?
The Plectrum, a smaller Lyre which was played with a pick
  1. How many lyric poems did she compose?
More than 500.
  1. Describe her students and cult.
A very tightly-knit, possibly even lesbian (in the modern sense) group of girls who shared art and poetry with each other.
  1. What were some of the ways she was worshipped even 1000 years after her death?
Sculptors made statues of her, most educated people owned some of her literature, and the capital of Lesbos used coins with her face on them.
  1. What about her writings made the Christians ‘anxious’?
They believed her to be a Pagan, and her enormous amount of influence was unsettling to them.
  1. When & where were some of her poems discovered?
In a thousand year old garbage dump in Egypt.
From “The State of Music at the End of the Ancient World”
  1. Where did the history of Western art music begin?
With the music of the Christian Church, but also in ancient Greece and Rome. (The packet is confusingly worded)
  1. Why did Roman musical traditions ‘disappear’ at the beginning of the Middle Ages?
The social occasions which were associated with Roman music were not approved of by the church.

  1. What attitude did Greek mythology display toward music and music makers?
They regarded music and music makers as divine.

  1. How did Aristotle react to the complexity of music festivals and competitions?
He warned against too much professional training in music, lest it destroy the creative nature of the craft.
  1. What does monophonic music sound like?
Melody without harmony or counterpoint
  1. Why is the Epitaph of Seikelos of particular interest to music historians?
Because it has clear rhythmic notation.
  1. How many notes survived the Euripides papyrus?
  1. Why did the early Christian Church distrust all instrumental music?
Because it was associated with paganism.

  1. What type of singing is the earliest recorded musical activity of the Christian Church?
Hymn singing
  1. How did Byzantine musical practices impact western chant?
A number of their chants were borrowed by western cultures.
  1. Who is ‘Gregorian Chant’ named after?
I haven’t even read this section yet, but I’m guessing someone named Gregory. Turns out I was right, it was Pope Gregory I
  1. What language replaced Greek as the ‘official language of the Roman liturgy?
  1. List a few of the jobs required of a monastic cantor? Maintaining the Library and directing the performances.

  1. Who was allowed to play the lyre to accompany hymn singing and psalms?
Average Churchgoers
  1. What role did the Christian missionaries play in developing Western music?
They carried Gregorian chants all across Europe.

  1. Who was Boethius? Describe one of his ideas about music.
Boethius was the most revered and respected authority on music in the Middle Ages.
From “Unit 4 Wiki Space”
  1. Describe the timbre of the Lyre
Kind of dark, thicker
  1. Describe the timbre of the Kithara
Similar to the Lyre
  1. Describe the timbre of the Aulos
Nasal, dry, not particularly cheery
  1. Describe musical elements from “Sappho’s Marriage Celebration”.
High Pitched, no beat, medium tempo

  1. What musical elements are present in ‘Euripides’ ?
Pitch, Dynamics, Tone Color, and Duration are all present

  1. What musical elements are present in ‘Epitath of Seikelos’?
Pitch, Duration, Tone Color, and slight dynamics

  1. What are the differences in how these two pieces sound?
Euripides is slower, and sadder than the epitaph.

  1. Overall, how does the music of ancient times make you feel?
Evolved, I guess. I think music has come a long way and has really improved.

  1. If you were to play an instrument from this time period, what would you choose? Why?

The Lyre, because it seemed to be able to produce the most diverse sound.